A century of rice water weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): a history of research and management with an emphasis on the United States.
The rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) is a native curculionid pest of rice in the southern and eastern United States. It was first identified as Lissorhoptrus simplex Say in the first report of damage from southern Georgia in 1881. In 1951 Chilean systematist Giullermo Kuschel reclassified it as L. oryzophilus following a reevaluation of New World genera within Curculionidae. Management of the weevil has changed throughout the years, as environmental issues, regulatory actions, and pesticide resistance have required researchers, pest management practitioners, and growers to adapt. In the 2010s, management of the rice water weevil has expanded with the use of anthralic diamides and neonicotinoids as the latest conventional options, generally delivered as seed treatments in southern U.S. rice production, and the possible emergence of Bacillus thuringiensis as a viable alternative to chemical controls. Delayed flooding and planting are common cultural controls used in southern U.S. rice production while levee weed control and winter flooding are used in California production. The history of this insect pest including management, life history, and invasion biology in rice production regions of the temperate world will be discussed with an emphasis on the United States.