Cadophora species associated with wood-decay of grapevine in North America.
Cadophora species are reported from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in California, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Canada. Frequent isolation from vines co-infected with the Esca pathogens (Togninia minima and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora), and confirmation of its ability to cause wood lesions/discoloration in pathogenicity tests, suggest that C. luteo-olivacea is part of the trunk pathogen complex. In North America, little is known regarding the diversity, geographic distribution, and roles of Cadophora species as trunk pathogens. Accordingly, we characterized 37 Cadophora isolates from ten US states and two Canadian provinces, based on molecular and morphological comparisons, and pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis of three loci (ITS, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1-α) and beta-tubulin (BT)) distinguished two known species (C. luteo-olivacea and Cadophora melinii) and three newly-described species (Cadophora orientoamericana, Cadophora novi-eboraci, and Cadophora spadicis). C. orientoamericana, C. novi-eboraci, and C. spadicis were restricted to the northeastern US, whereas C. luteo-olivacea was only recovered from California. C. melinii was present in California and Ontario, Canada. Morphological characterization was less informative, due to significant overlap in dimensions of conidia, hyphae, conidiophores, and conidiogenous cells. Pathogenicity tests confirmed the presence of wood lesions after 24 m, suggesting that Cadophora species may have a role as grapevine trunk pathogens.