Identification of basidiomycete fungi in Indonesian hardwood plantations by DNA barcoding.
An investigation of root rot in Acacia mangium plantations in Indonesia generated over 1000 fungal isolates from field surveys at six locations. The majority of isolates were identified as Ganoderma philippii or Ganoderma mastoporum by species-specific PCR, but this still left 274 isolates to be identified. As barcoding initiatives for fungi are still in the early stages, to assist identification of these isolates in this way we developed a database of sequences based on identified sporocarps and also searched public DNA sequence databases for sequences with high similarity. The database of sequences from sporocarp collections is more limited than public DNA databases. This resulted in more reliance on public DNA databases for a high proportion of taxa. Several pathogenic species were identified, with Phellinus noxius occurring at several locations and on both A. mangium and Eucalyptus pellita. Ganoderma steyaertanum was isolated from A. mangium roots and Rigidoporus microporus from E. pellita roots, each at a single location only. Potential pitfalls of using public DNA databases for fungal identification are discussed and methods to avoid these and increase confidence in the identification are presented.