Isolation and characterization of nine microsatellite loci from the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).
The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Hemiptera: Tingididae) of North America, is an invasive pest of plane and sycamore trees (Platanus spp.) (Proteales: Plantanaceae), and has invaded many countries. To explore the population genetic structure and the invasion route by which C. ciliata reached China, we developed 9 highly polymorphic microsatellites loci by the FIASCO method. Polymorphism of the 9 loci was assessed in 48 individuals from 2 populations (Guiyang and Nanjing) in China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 13. The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities varied from 0.146 to 0.958 and 0.290 to 0.849, respectively, in Guiyang population. Likewise HO and HE varied from 0.483 to 0.739 and 0.443 to 0.865, respectively, in Nanjing population. Two loci (CA15 and GA365) showed significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in Nanjing population. Moreover, loci CA200>26, GT26&TG100, and TG100&GA365 showed significant linkage disequilibria (LD) in the Guiyang population (P<0.01), and loci GT26 and GA5 (P<0.01) showed significant linkage disequilibria (LD) in the Nanjing population. Finally, we found 2 types of mutational events that could generate the new alleles, but the main mutation mechanism for the newly developed microsatellites was slippage in the repeat motif and in the flanking region. In future work, the nine loci identified here will be used to study the population genetic structures of C. ciliata populations in China and in putative regions of their origin, and investigate the probable route by which the pest reached China.