First report of the fruits flies, Ceratitis quinaria and Ceratitis silvestri, on yellow plum Ximenia americana in Burkina Faso, West Africa.
Fruits of Ximenia americana provide oil that is used for food and cosmetics. However, oil production potentials are limited by damages caused by the fruit flies. This research focused on the identification of the harmful insects of the ripe fruits of X. americana, the measure of morphometric and demographic parameters. Damages were also determined. Samplings were carried out in two sites and consisted in fruits collection on 10 randomly selected mature trees per site. Fruits are sorted to separate healthy ones and portions of damaged ones were incubated in order to follow insects rearing. Two species of fruit flies were identified for the first time on X. americana. They were Ceratitis quinaria (BEZZI) and Ceratitis silvestrii (BEZZI). Their morphometric and demographic parameters varied according to the sites. Parasitoids from the genus Diachasmimorpha were also identified. The rate of damaged fruits varied from 85.5% at Yagma to 95.5% at Gampèla, that compromises the efficient exploitation of this fruit. This work provides relevant information which will help to set up a sustainable management of X. americana's pests in Burkina Faso.