Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of Georgia.

Abstract

The gall midge fauna of Georgia is composed of 123 species belonging to 47 genera. Of them 12 species are identified to the genus level: two species to Asphondylia Loew, 1850, two species to Contarinia Rondani, 1860, two species to Dasineura Rondani, 1840, one species to Ephedromyia Marikovskij, 1953, one species to Mikiola Kieffer, 1896, and one species to Spurgia Gagné, 1990. 82 gall midge species are new members of the gall midge fauna of Georgia; their galls were found by H. J. Buhr at 30 localities in central and eastern Georgia in the years 2004-2013. An annotated list of all species of gall midges and a list of host plants and associated with gall midges are given. Galls of 60 species of gall midges on their host plants are shown in colour photos. The gall midge fauna of Georgia is relatively rich and similar in composition and species numbers with that of Armenia; both countries are shared by 40 common species. Zoogeographical analysis: 38% are European, 22% Eurosiberian, 18% Euro-Asian, 5% Holarctic and 2% alien species. Contarinia desertorum Marikovskij, 1961, causing galls on Alhagi pseudoalhagi (Bieb.) Desv, Psectrosema barbatum (Marikovskij, 1961) and P. turkmenicum Mamaev et Becknazharova, 1983, associated with Tamarix L., Spiromyia cystiphorae (Fedotova, 1985) and Tavolgomyia karelini (Fedotova, 1982) with Spiraea hypericifolia L. are Turanian species originating from Central Asia. Mikiola orientalis Kieffer, 1908 and Mikiola sp. causing galls on leaves of Fagus orientalis Lipsky, Rabdophaga gemmicolata Gagne, 2004, causing galls on Salix triandra L. and Sophoromyia armeniaca Mamaev et Mirumian, 1989, inducing galls on leaflets of Glycyrrhiza glabra L., are Caucasian species. Janetiella frankumi Harris, 2003, inducing galls on stems of Rosa spinosissima L., is a rare species, firstly recorded after its description. Contarinia loti (De Geer, 1776), causing galls on Lotus pedunculatus Cav., was found at the highest situated locality of Georgia, at Kazbegi, at an altitude of 2191 m a. s. l. In Georgia two alien species were recorded: Dasineura gleditchiae (Osten Sacken, 1886), causing galls on leaflets of Gleditsia triacanthos L., and Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman, 1847), inducing galls on leaflets of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Both species originate from Neartics. Relation to host plants: gall midges are associated with 102 plant species which belong to 40 plant families; of them 30% are trees and shrubs and 70% herbaceous plants. Most gall midge species (15) are associated with Fabaceae. Usually only one species of gall midges is associated with one host plant species. Each of three tree, Betula litwinowii Doluch, Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fagus sylvatica L., host three gall midge species.