Effects of buffer and isopropanol alcohol concentration on detection of quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) birefringence and DNA.
The long term effects of sample preservation on dreissenid veliger detection by cross polarized light microscopy (CPLM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is poorly understood. This study examined how buffer and isopropanol alcohol impact veliger morphology and detection. Veliger detection by CPLM was completely inhibited after 14 days in acidic deionized (DI) water without buffer or alcohol, but veligers were still detectable by PCR. Veliger detection by CPLM increased when the pH of samples was buffered with 0.2 grams of sodium bicarbonate per 100 mL of raw water sample, but long term deterioration was not completely prevented without the addition of isopropanol alcohol and buffer. After 36 days, 100% of veligers were detected by CPLM in samples preserved with 20, 50, and 70% isopropanol alcohol and 0.2 grams of sodium bicarbonate per 100 mL. This study indicates the significant role that sample preservation plays in the accurate identification of veligers in early detection sampling.