Hazard assessment of metals in invasive fish species of the Yamuna River, India in relation to bioaccumulation factor and exposure concentration for human health implications.
Monitoring of heavy metals was conducted in the Yamuna River considering bioaccumulation factor, exposure concentration, and human health implications which showed contamination levels of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) and their dispersion patterns along the river. Largest concentration of Pb in river water was 392 µg L-1; Cu was 392 µg L-1 at the extreme downstream, Allahabad and Ni was 146 µg L-1 at midstream, Agra. Largest concentration of Cu was 617 µg kg-1, Ni 1,621 µg kg-1 at midstream while Pb was 1,214 µg kg-1 at Allahabad in surface sediment. The bioconcentration of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cr was observed where the largest accumulation of Pb was 2.29 µg kg-1 in Oreochromis niloticus and 1.55 µg kg-1 in Cyprinus carpio invaded at Allahabad while largest concentration of Ni was 174 µg kg-1 in O. niloticus and 124 µg kg-1 in C. carpio in the midstream of the river. The calculated values of hazard index (HI) for Pb was found more than one which indicated human health concern. Carcinogenic risk value for Ni was again high i.e., 17.02×10-4 which was larger than all other metals studied. The results of this study indicated bioconcentration in fish due to their exposures to heavy metals from different routes which had human health risk implications. Thus, regular environmental monitoring of heavy metal contamination in fish is advocated for assessing food safety since health risk may be associated with the consumption of fish contaminated through exposure to a degraded environment.