Properties and antimicrobial activity of fish protein isolate/fish skin gelatin film containing basil leaf essential oil and zinc oxide nanoparticles.
Composite films based on fish protein isolate (FPI) and fish skin gelatin (FSG) blend incorporated with 50 and 100% (w/w, protein) basil leaf essential oil (BEO) in the absence and presence of 3% (w/w, protein) ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONP) were prepared and characterised. Tensile strength (TS) decreased, whilst elongation at break (EAB) increased as BEO level increased (p<0.05). However, ZnONP addition resulted in higher TS but lower EAB (p<0.05). The lowest water vapour permeability (WVP) was observed for the film incorporated with 100% BEO and 3% ZnONP (p<0.05). BEO and ZnONP incorporation decreased transparency of FPI/FSG films (p<0.05). FTIR spectra indicated that films added with BEO exhibited higher hydrophobicity. Both BEO and ZnONP had a marked impact on thermal stability of the films. Microstructural study revealed that the presence of ZnONP prevented bilayer formation of film containing 100% BEO. FPI/FSG films incorporated with 100% BEO, especially in combination with ZnONP, exhibited strong antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria and thus could be used as an active food packaging material to ensure safety and to extend the shelf-life of packaged foods.