Effects of heat stress on development, reproduction and activities of protective enzymes in Mononychellus mcgregori.
Mononychellus mcgregori is a pest mite of cassava. Since its invasion into China in 2008 it has spread rapidly. In order to determine the potential distribution and to analyze its invasion, diffusion and ecological adaptation mechanisms, we investigated the effect of high-temperature stress (30, 33, 36, 39 and 42°C) on its development and reproduction, and the activity of protective enzymes in the mite. The results indicated significant influences: (1) adults could not lay eggs after they had been exposed to 42°C for 4 h or longer; (2) egg development was slower and egg hatchability decreased after exposure of adults to 33-42°C for 1 h; (3) offspring development (all stages) was slower after exposure of adults to 33-42°C for 2 h or more; and (4) polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) activities in the adults increased to high levels after exposure to 33-42°C for 1 h, and superoxide dismutase activity increased only after exposure to 42°C for 1 h. In conclusion, exposure to high temperatures for only 1 h probably has an important impact on the mite's population growth. The significant increase of PPO, POD, APX, and CAT activities in adults may partially explain how M. mcgregori survive exposure to a relatively high temperature.