Water quality challenges and impact.
Man's activities on the environment often results in pollution and degradation of water bodies. Water bodies must therefore be jealously guided and protected from being polluted, which will affect water quality and availability for desired usage. Causes of water quality impairment are urban and rural storm water runoff, inadequate waste water treatment, nutrient entrophication, atmospheric deposition and acid rain, pollutant in sediments and fish, and nuisance aquatic weed growth and invasive species. Other factors include unhygienic disposal and inadequate treatment of human and livestock wastes, indecent management and treatment of industrial residues, inappropriate agricultural practices and unsafe solid waste discharge. Suggested strategies to combat water quality problems which should form the basis of policy solution for improving water quality include: (i) prevention of pollution; (ii) treatment of polluted water; (iii) safe use of waste water; and (iv) restoration and protection of ecosystem. It is recommended that our water bodies and the environment in general should be protected through appropriate legislation guidelines and public literacy campaign and mass education to sensitize, educate and make the people a fully environmentally literate society. Taking these steps internationally, nationally and locally will mean better water quality for our present society and future generation.