First report of Ilyonectria macrodidyma associated with black foot disease of grapevine in Brazil.
In 2012, some 4- to 40-year-old grapevines (Vitis spp.) showing reduced vigour, vascular lesions, necrotic root lesions, delayed budding, vine decline, and death were collected from 7 locations in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Based on morphological features, multi-gene analysis (rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and histone H3), and pathogenicity test using 4-month-old rooted cuttings of V. labrusca cv. Bordô, the causal agent was identified as Ilyonectria macrodidyma. This is thought to be the first report of I. macrodidyma associated with black foot disease of grapevine in Brazil.