Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Subolesin/akirin vaccines for the control of arthropod vectors and vectorborne pathogens.

Abstract

Diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks and sand flies greatly impact human and animal health, and therefore, their control is important for the eradication of vectorborne diseases (VBD). Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for vector control that allows control of several VBD by targeting their common vector. Recent results have suggested that subolesin (SUB) and its orthologue in insects, akirin (AKR) are good candidate antigens for the control of arthropod vector infestations and pathogen infection. SUB was discovered as a tick-protective antigen in Ixodes scapularis. Vaccination trials with recombinant SUB/AKR demonstrated effective control of arthropod vector infestations in various hard and soft tick species, mosquitoes, sand flies, poultry red mites and sea lice by reducing their numbers, weight, oviposition, fertility and/or moulting. SUB/AKR vaccination also reduced tick infection with tickborne pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. marginale, Babesia bigemina and Borrelia burgdorferi. The effect of vaccination on different hosts, vector species, developmental stages and vectorborne pathogen infections demonstrated the feasibility of SUB/AKR universal vaccines for the control of multiple vector infestations and for reduction in VBD.