Camelpox, an emerging orthopox viral disease.
Camelpox is considered as emerging public health problem during this decade due to increased reported cases and outbreaks in camels. Camelpox is a contagious, often sporadic, and notifiable skin disease of camelids and is socio-economically significant as it incurs considerable loss in terms of morbidity, mortality, loss of weight and reduction in milk yield and confined to camel-rearing countries. The causative agent, camelpox virus (CMLV) is genetically closely related to variola virus and has gained much attention from researchers due to its recent emergence in human. The virus carrying genes responsible for host immune evasion mechanisms owing to the threat posed by potential bio-warfare agents. Although the disease can be diagnosed based on clinical features, the similar confounding skin lesions necessitate identification, detection and differentiation of the CMLV by molecular techniques. Vaccines are available in some countries and the available live attenuated vaccine provides long-lasting immunity. Further, novel highly sensitive and specific techniques would be useful in the identification of emerging and re-emerging virus, thereby therapeutic, prophylactic, preventive measures would be applied in time to curtail further spread of camelpox like other zoonotic diseases. This review provide overview of the camelpox particularly on its epidemiology, pathogenesis and biology of the disease, diagnostic approaches and control measures.