Abies taxa of Turkey and their visual characteristics.
Plants that are an indispensable element of landscape designs are also an important integral part owing to their operational and aesthetic functions to the environment. The most important issue when performing the planting design is the knowledge of the plants. Otherwise, by using the plant in a wrong site, it is unavoidable to have a failure in landscape design. In Turkey, there are totally four Abies species growing naturally. These are Abies bornmulleriana in Uludag, Abies nordmanniana in Eastern Black Sea region, Abies equi-trojani in Gallipoli and Abies cilicica in Taurus Mountains. It was observed that, except for the native ones, exotic species belonging to the Abies genus have been widely used in the big cities of the country in recent years. In the landscape designs of Istanbul, which is the biggest metropolitan city of Turkey, there are many native and exotic species of Abies taxa. In this study, based on literature data and observations and assessing the ecological, dendrological and visual characteristics of Abies, a simple identification key has been created. Photograph data of leaves, cones, habitus and form characteristics of those taxa has been given for the scope of this study.