Pathogenic fungi in garlic seed cloves and first report of Fusarium proliferatum causing cloves rot of stored bulbs in upper Egypt.
Isolation trails from garlic seed cloves of certain cultivars commercially distributed and rotted cloves of stored Baladi cultivar during 2010 and 2011 in different regions of Sohag, Egypt resulted in detection of four fungal genera Aspergillus, Botrytis, Fusarium and Penicillium. Moreover, Fusarium spp. was the most dominant fungi. Koch' postulates were performed on cloves, seedlings and potted garlic plants. Results showed that isolates of F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum and F. solani were superior to other tested fungi and induced the highest cloves rot (CR). F. oxysporum highly reduced clove germination (CG), produced extensive seedlings damping-off and induced highly disease severity index of rotted roots/cloves followed by F. solani. Unexpectedly, it was found that F. proliferatum is contaminated and colonised seed cloves, extremely reduced CG and following harvesting caused the highest CR of stored bulbs. To our knowledge, this is first notice for occurrence of F. proliferatum causing CR of stored garlic bulbs in Egypt.