Invasive Species Compendium

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Abstract

The prevalence of the Citrus tristeza virus trifoliate resistance breaking genotype among Puerto Rican isolates.

Abstract

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates have been grouped into six genotypes: T3, T30, T36, VT, B165, and resistance breaking (RB) based on symptoms, host range, and genomic sequence data. The RB genotype has recently been identified with the novel property of replicating in trifoliate orange trees, a resistant host for the other five genotypes. Puerto Rican CTV isolate B301 caused mild vein clearing symptoms in Mexican lime but did not induce seedling yellows or stem pitting reactions in appropriate indicator Citrus spp., which are typical host reactions of the isolate T30. The isolate B301 was not detected by the genotype specific primer (GSP), which identifies the CTV-T3, -T30, -T36, -VT, and B165 genotypes. A primer pair for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of the CTV-RB genotype was designed from the heat shock protein (p65) region based on the complete genomic sequences of trifoliate RB isolates from New Zealand available in the GenBank databases. The amplicon sequence from isolate B301 was 98% identical to that of the other trifoliate RB isolates. In addition, B301 was successfully inoculated into 'Carrizo citrange' (a trifoliate hybrid) but did not induce any symptoms. Furthermore, the complete genome sequence of B301 followed by the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate is part of the RB clade with other CTV-RB isolates from New Zealand and Hawaii. Additional CTV isolates obtained from Puerto Rico were tested with the RB-GSP and confirmed the presence of trifoliate RB isolates in mixed infection with known CTV genotypes. Although this is the first report of a CTV trifoliate RB genotype from Puerto Rico, this genotype was present there prior to 1992.