Variations in weed flora and the degree of its transformation in ecological and extensive conventional cereal crops in selected habitats of the Beskid Wyspowy Mountains.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of production conditions, as influenced by habitat factors and farming system, on the geographical-historical spectrum of weed flora accompanying cereal crops and selected aspects of its transformations. The study was conducted in the period 2009-2011 in seven field habitats located in the municipality of Słopnice (Beskid Wyspowy Mountains). The study material consisted of 192 phytosociological relevés made using the Braun-Blanquet method in ecological and extensive conventional cereal crops. The obtained results are evidence of the numerical predominance of native species (spontaneophytes) over alien taxa in weed infestation, regardless of conditions. The dominant proportion of synanthropic spontaneophytes (apophytes) in weed infestation of fields proves the leading role of the process of apophytization and thus a small effect of anthropopressure on the status and transformations of the flora. Nevertheless, the alien flora, dominated by archeophytes, confirms the historical continuity of agricultural culture in the study area. The parameters describing synanthropic transformations of arable flora, i.e. the anthropophytization, archaeophytization, kenophytization and modernization indices of this flora, do not show any significant differences resulting from production conditions. However, there are reasons that allow us to presume that the directions and intensity of transformations of the segetal flora in the study area are more determined by habitat conditions that ensure the ongoing co-occurrence of different land use forms and plant communities which are important for the maintenance of biological diversity and which strengthen the sustainability of the agricultural environment.