Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae; Coreidae) associated with macadamia in South Africa.
Bathycoelia natalicola (Distant) is the dominant stink bug on macadamias in South Africa. This insect occurred throughout the year but was particularly numerous during summer months when developing macadamia nuts were available on the trees. The presence of nymphs and adults throughout the winter as well as the absence of seasonal polyphenism indicates that true diapause may not occur in areas with mild subtropical climates. After harvest, during winter when no nuts were available, the winter stink bug complex consisting of Nezara pallidocons-persa Stal, Nezara prunasis Dallas and Atelocera raptoria Germarbecame was more numerous. The Nezara species do not breed in macadamias indicating that macadamia is possibly not a preferred host plant. Few individuals of the polyphagous pest, Pseudotheraptus wayi brown were recovered with the branch shaking technique suggesting that this technique is possibly not suitable to monitor for this insect. Considerable P. wayi damage levels were however, detected by dissecting prematurely aborted nuts.