Global scenario of insect and non-insect pests of jujube and their management options.
There are two major domesticated jujubes viz., the Indian jujube or ber, Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. and the Chinese or common jujube, Ziziphus jujuba Mill. These two species have been cultivated in the tropical and temperate climates including India, Pakistan, China, Africa to Afghanistan, Malaysia, Australia and some regions of the South Pacific, whereas in Australia and Fiji it has become an invasive weed (Weber, 2003). The edible fruits are of interest for medicinal products or dyestuffs with several vernacular names. As many as 130 species of insect and non-insect pests have been recorded from ber growing regions in India (Lakra and Bhatti, 1985). Of which only few species have attained the pest status and cause substantial economic damage. However, on scanning of world literature a total of 177 insect and non-insect pests feeding on ber were recorded from the extensive ber growing countries across the world. These belong to VIZ., diptera - 13, lepidoptera - 41, coleopteran - 38, hemiptera - 57, hymenoptera - 1, thysanoptera - 7, isopteran - 3, orthoptera - 2, acariforms - 12, gastropoda - 1 and psittaciformes - 2 species. Out of these, five insects viz., ber fruit borer, Meridarchis scyrodes Meyrick and three species of ber fruit flies, Carpomyia vesuviana Costa; Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) and Bactrocera correctus (Bezzi) (Balikai, 1999) and mirid bug, Lygus lucorum Meyer-Dur (Zhang et al., 2005) were considered major pests on this crop. Five insects viz., grape mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green); ber mealy bug, Perissopneumon tamarindus (Green); ber fruit weevil, Aubeus himalayanus Voss; castor semilooper, Achaea janata Linn. and snail, Cryptozona semirugata (Beck) were considered moderate pests. As many as eleven insect pests viz., cow bug, Tricentrus bicolor; thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood); longicorn beetle, Celeosterna scabrator Fabricius; gray weevil, Myllocerus discolor (Boheman); spiny beetle, Platypriya andrewesi Weise; hairy caterpillar, Thiacidas postica Walker; tassar silk moth, Anthearea paphia Linnaeus; tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius); eriophyid mite, Eriophyes cernus Massee; mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein) and white fly, Aleurotrachelus alhagi Priesner et Hosny were considered minor pests on this crop. Five insect pests including green striped leaf hopper, Eurybrachys tomentesa Fab.; jassid, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida); spittle bug, Machaerota planitiae Distant; lac insect, Laccifer lacca Kerr. and ber butterfly, Tarucus theophrastus (Fabricius) were considered negligible pests. Various management strategies for these pests followed worldwide are discussed in this paper.