Quantitative evaluation of predominant of weeds in winter wheat and barley fields in Eastern Azerbaijan, Iran.
In order to determine the density and abundance of dominant weeds in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran, a total of 93 fields, consisting of 73 winter wheat and 20 winter barley fields were studied. Field products were sampled from stem (mid-spring) until the end of fruition in different regions of the province. Weeds were counted and identified according to genus and species, and their stage of development was registered. The entire sample contained 136 weed species from 100 Genera, belonging to 28 families. The most frequently encountered weeds were members of the Brassicaceae, with 20 species, Poaceae, with 17 species, and Asteraceae, with 16 species. Of the 136 weed species, the majority (88%) were dicotyledonous, while the remainder was monocotyledonous. Moreover, 78% of the weeds were annual/biennial. The current study revealed predominant weed species in wheat and barley fields of East Azerbaijan province of Iran. Moreover, we demonstrated that proper weed management will substantially help to reduce the damage to wheat and barley fields.