Occurrence and distribution of Triticum mosaic virus in the Central Great Plains.
Wheat curl mite (WCM)-transmitted viruses - namely, Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), and the High Plains virus (HPV) - are three of the wheat-infecting viruses in the central Great Plains of the United States. TriMV is newly discovered and its prevalence and incidence are largely unknown. Field surveys were carried out in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota in spring and fall 2010 and 2011 to determine TriMV prevalence and incidence and the frequency of TriMV co-infection with WSMV or HPV in winter wheat. WSMV was the most prevalent and was detected in 83% of 185 season-counties (=s-counties), 73% of 420 season-fields (=s-fields), and 35% of 12,973 samples. TriMV was detected in 32, 6, and 6% of s-counties, s-fields, and samples, respectively. HPV was detected in 34, 15, and 4% of s-counties, s-fields, and samples, respectively. TriMV was detected in all four states. In all, 91% of TriMV-positive samples were co-infected with WSMV, whereas WSMV and HPV were mainly detected as single infections. The results from this study indicate that TriMV occurs in winter wheat predominantly as a double infection with WSMV, which will complicate breeding for resistance to WCM-transmitted viruses.