Phyllocnistis citrella and its parasitoids in three citrus species in Greece.
The relative abundance as well as the percentage of parasitism of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and its parasitoids were studied in a citrus orchard with orange, mandarin and lemon trees in Greece. Infestation of P. citrella on each citrus host, as expressed by the number of mines per leaf, was significantly higher on lemon than on mandarin. The P. citrella parasitoid complex included the native species Neochrysocharis formosa and Pnigalio pectinicornis, as well as the introduced Citrostichus phyllocnistoides. The most abundant of those was N. formosa in all of the citrus species. The average percentage of parasitism was 13.1%, 13.8% and 11.7% on orange, mandarin and lemon, respectively. No significant differences in parasitism rate by each of the three parasitoid species separately were recorded among the three citrus species.