Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: Cecidomyiinae) of Norway.

Abstract

Thirty-eight species of the subfamily Cecidomyiinae were found during investigations in 1995 around Harstad in northern Norway and 56 species in 2003 around Trondheim in central Norway, altogether 73 species of which 46 are new records for Norway. The present fauna of gall midges of the family Cecidomyiidae of Norway includes 238 species of which 119 species in 37 genera belong to Cecidomyiinae, 4 species to Porricondylinae, 109 species to Lestremiinae and 6 are unplaced species. An annotated list of species of the subfamily Cecidomyiinae and a list of host plants and associated gall midges is given. Zoogeographical analysis: 51% are European, 23% Euro-Siberian, 15% Euro-Asian, 8.5% Holarctic and 2.5% alien species. Harstad, about 300 km north from the Arctic Circle, is for 38 species the most northern situated known locality of distribution area in Europe. Frequency: 42% species occur very scarcely, 18.5% scarcely, 28% medium frequently, 8.5% frequently and 3% very frequently. Dasineura tortilis (Bremi, 1847) causing leaf galls on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Dasineura ulmaria (Bremi, 1847) on leaves of Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. and Oligotrophus juniperinus (Linnaeus, 1758) on branches of Juniperus communis L. are very frequent. Iteomyia capreae (Winnertz, 1853) inducing galls on leaves of Salix caprea L. and other Salix-species is the most frequent species occurring in Norway. Alien species: Contarinia quinquenotata (F. Low, 1888) causing galls on flower buds of Hemerocallis fulva L., Rhopalomyia chrysanthemi (Ahlberg, 1939) inducing galls on leaves, stems, buds or flowerheads of autumn commercial chrysanthemums, and the zoophagous species Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot, 1827) which has been introduced into Norway as a biological agent for control of Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 in greenhouses. Dasineura kellneri (Henschel, 1875), a European species, causing galls on Larix decidua L. is evaluated as alien in Norway. Hygrodiplosis vaccina (Kieffer, 1897) and Contarinia sp. associated with Vaccinium uliginosum L., Jaapiella vacciniorum (Kieffer, 1913) with Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Dasineura vitisidaea (Kieffer, 1909) with Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., occurring in Scandinavia and at localities situated at high altitudes in European mountains, are Arctic-Alpine species. Relation to host plants: 119 gall midge species are associated with 87 plant species of 34 plant families. About one half of host plant species are trees and shrubs and the other half are herbaceous plants. Most (24 gall midge species) are associated with Salicaceae and 13 species with Rosaceae. The highest species number (8 species) for a single host species is associated with Populus tremula L. and 17 species with several Salix-species. During the 20th century about 30 gall midge species were reported as pests of agricultural plants and forest trees in Norway.