Association of Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium longisporum with Chinese cabbage yellows and their distribution in the main production areas of Japan.
Chinese cabbage yellows caused by Verticillium dahliae and V. longisporum is one of the most economically important diseases in Japan. Verticillium isolates from infected Chinese cabbage in Japan were identified as V. dahliae and V. longisporum based on morphological characteristics and newly developed molecular genotyping methods using group I intron of 18S rDNA, mitochondrial-SSU rDNA and cob gene. Although the two species were equally virulent to Chinese cabbage in the greenhouse, V. longisporum was more virulent in the field compared with V. dahliae. Among the 67 Verticillium isolates from Chinese cabbage, 53 were V. longisporum and considered to be the major pathogen. The isolation frequency of V. longisporum was 98% in Ibaraki and eastern Gunma where Chinese cabbage was cropped from autumn to winter. In contrast, the frequency was 48% in Nagano and north to west Gunma where the plant was cropped in cool summer and highland conditions and the rests were V. dahliae. This is the first report to show the different geographical distribution of V. longisporum and V. dahliae in Chinese cabbage production area of Japan.