The attraction of cerambycids and other xylophagous beetles, potential vectors of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to semio-chemicals in Slovenia.
The attractiveness of different semio-chemicals to potential vectors of the phytoparasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was investigated in conifer forests in Slovenia. From 2007 to 2009, the presence of xylophagous beetles in Pinus nigra, P. sylvestris, P. halepensis, Picea abies and Abies alba stands was assessed at eight locations. Insects were collected at 1-month intervals during the growing season using four cross vane traps per location with a collecting container with propylene glycol and attractants (ethanol+α-pinene, Pheroprax® and Gallowit®). The trapped insects represented 24 families of the order Coleoptera, and we identified 94 species. The most numerous group was the weevil subfamily Scolytinae (76.55% of all insects collected), followed by the family Cerambycidae (8.12%), and the weevil subfamily Curculioninae (1.67%). With regard to species number, the most frequent wood-borers were Cerambycidae (24 taxa), Scolytinae (12 species) and Buprestidae (8 species). The most abundant species was Spondylis buprestoides, followed by Arhopalus rusticus, Monochamus galloprovincialis and Arhopalus ferus. At all locations, the largest catch of Cerambycidae occurred in July. The most effective attractant was ethanol+α-pinene, followed by Gallowit®; the least effective attractant was Pheroprax®. Among Monochamus species, M. galloprovincialis represented 17.54%, M. sutor 0.09% and M. sartor 0.04% of the long-horned beetles collected. Monochamus individuals were most numerous in the P. nigra stand and were attracted in the greatest numbers by Gallowit®, followed by ethanol+α-pinene. The cerambycid catch was highly correlated with the catch of non-target bark beetle predators (Cleridae, Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Trogositidae, Nitidulidae, Rhizophagidae) in the traps.