Current status of fig mosaic disease in Iran.
During 2009-2010, a survey was conducted in gardens and commercial fig orchards throughout Iran to determine the prevalence of Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1), Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2), Fig mild mottle-associated virus (FMMaV), Fig latent virus 1 (FLV-1) and Fig mosaic virus (FMV). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and dot immunobinding assay (DIBA) were conducted on 104 fig samples collected from seven provinces. FLV-1, FLMaV-1 and FMV were found in 14.5, 11.5 and 8.6% of the samples, respectively, but FLMaV-2 and FMMaV were absent. The overall average of infection reached 18.3%, with a peak of 42.9% in Semnan Province, followed by Golestan (40%), Tehran (32.3%), Lorestan (28.6%) and Mazandaran (25%) provinces. No infection was found in Fars and Gilan provinces. Fig samples from Varamin and Khorramabad districts showed high levels of mixed infections, 35.7 and 28.6%, respectively. The presence of FMV and FLV-1 in the sap of symptomatic fig leaves was also ascertained by DIBA. Sequence analysis of amplified DNA from the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of two FMV isolates from Iran showed a low level of nucleotide variability (5%). The Iranian isolates shared a common phylogeny with other Mediterranean FMV isolates and in particular with those originating from Turkey already reported in GenBank. This is the first report on the presence of FLMaV-1 and FLV-1 in Iran and offers a preliminary insight into the unsatisfactory health status of fig in this country.