Growth and yield of nine pine species in Angola.
A species introduction experiment including several tropical pines and eucalypts was established in 1966/1967 in the Tchianga research station in Angolan Highlands. Despite 27 years of political conflict (1975-2002) and lack of management, the research experiment has remained relatively well conserved. We measured the best conserved plots that were 41 years old in 2007 to obtain information on the growth of different pine species. We calculated stand characteristics including basal area, dominant height, mean diameter, and stand volume for Pinus patula Schiede ex Schiltdl. Et Cham., Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl., Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon, Pinus devoniana Lindl., Pinus chiapensis (Martinez) Andresen, Pinus elliottii Engelm., Pinus greggii Engelm. Ex Parl., Pinus montezumae Lamb. and Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schltdl. The growing stock volume at 41 years was the highest in P. pseudostrobus, 1,325 m3.ha-1, followed by P. kesiya with 1,200 m3.ha-1. The widely planted P. patula had a growing stock volume of 892 m3.ha-1. P. oocarpa and P. pseudostrobus had the highest stand basal area, over 80 m2.ha-1. Using increment core analyses we studied the temporal development of stand characteristics. Analysis of the mean annual increment (MAI) showed that rotation lengths of 20-30 years would maximize wood production. With these rotation lengths, the MAI of P. pseudostrobus would be 35 m3.ha-1. Other productive species were P. kesiya, P. oocarpa and P. chiapensis. P. patula had a maximum MAI of 20 m3.ha-1. P. greggii had the lowest mean annual volume production, only about 13 m3.ha-1.