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Abstract

Comparison of nematicidal activity of extracts from leaf and flower of Parthenium hysterophorus against Meloidogyne incognita.

Abstract

In order to definite the nematicidal activity of Parthenium hysterophorus L., the nematicidal activity of different solvent extracts, different partitioned extracts from methanol extracts and different partitioned constituents from alkaline water layer of methanol extracts from leaf and flower of P. hysterophorus against Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood were detected. And also, alkaloids in different extracts, partitioned extracts and partitioned constituents were analyzed qualitatively. The results show that yield rates of distilled water, methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts from leaf and flower are 24.5% and 20.3%, 19.6% and 10.9%, 6.8% and 7.7%, 2.0% and 2.7%, respectively, in which, nematicidal activity of distilled water and methanol extracts from leaf and flower against M. incognita all are stronger, but that of petroleum ether extracts are the weakest. The adjusted mortality of M. incognita respectively treated for 24 and 48 h with 1.0% and 0.5% (mass-volume ratio) distilled water extracts from leaf and flower all are 100.00%, and that treated for 48 h with 1.0% and 0.5% (mass-volume ratio) methanol extracts from leaf and flower all are above 90%. The partitioned extracts of alkaline water layer, chloroform layers I and II of methanol extracts from leaf and flower have a certain degree of nematicidal activity. In which, the adjusted mortality of M. incognita respectively treated for 48 h with 1.0% (mass-volume ratio) partitioned extracts of alkaline water layer of flower and leaf and of chloroform layer I of flower all are 100.00%, but the nematicidal activity of partitioned extracts of chloroform layer II is the weakest. Eleven constituents (A1-A11) with different polarities separated from the alkaline water layer of methanol extracts from leaf and flower of P. hysterophorus appear the nematicidal activity with different degrees. In which, the adjusted mortality of M. incognita respectively treated for 48 h with 0.2% and 0.1% (mass-volume ratio) constituents of A2 [solvent V (chloroform):V (methanol)=10:1] and A7 [solvent V (chloroform):V (methanol)=1:1] of flower, and that of A2 and A6 [solvent V (chloroform):V (methanol)=2:1] of leaf all are 100.00%, which are significantly higher than that of other constituents. The qualitative test results show that extracts, partitioned extracts and partitioned constituents of leaf and flower of P. hysterophorus which have the nematicidal activity all contain alkaloids. It is suggested that nematicidal activity of flower of P. hysterophorus is higher than that of its leaf. And its nematicidal activity relates not only to plant parts and kind and polarity of solvents, but also to concentration and treatment time of extracts.