Occurrence of Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in exotic and wild birds in Poland.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (formerly Megabacteria sp.) in exotic and wild birds in Poland. A total of 399 birds of 45 species were examined for M. ornithogaster, using fecal smears (live birds) or cytological samples of the proventriculus undertaken at necropsy (the birds having died from various causes). M. ornithogaster was detected in 28.7% of exotic birds and 26.1% of wild birds. The microorganism was diagnosed most frequently in budgerigars (65.0%). A high rate of colonization was shown in macaws (41.6%), African gray parrots (33.3%), nymphs (26.9%) and lovebirds (16.7%). The prevalence of M. ornithogaster in canaries was 9.3%, in finches (Chloebia gouldiae, Poephila acuticauda, Amadina fasciata) 1.2%. In conclusion, the occurrence of M. ornitogaster in exotic birds is common in Poland, but in most of the cases the presence of this microorganism was not correlated with any clinical signs.