The spread of non-native Cepaea nemoralis and Monacha cartusiana (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the Czech Republic with comments on other land snail immigrants.
The aim of our study is to describe and visualise the spread of two non-indigenous land snail species Cepaea nemoralis and Monacha cartusiana in the Czech Republic during more than 100 years period. Several factors play an important role in changes of the distribution of these species: ecological (climate change), ethological (passive dispersal potencial) and economic (increasing traffic as a vector of spreading). The spreading of M. cartusiana has a rapidly increasing trend. More than half sites in the Czech Republic were colonised by this species in 2000-2010. While the spread of C. nemoralis has been continuous during the last century, the rapid range extension was recorded in the last two decades.