Restoration and resilience in weed-invaded ecosystems.
Strategic post-border management of the Australian Weeds of National Significance (WoNS) encompasses eradication, containment and asset protection, depending on the stage and location of invasion. While eradication and containment concentrate on the target weed, asset protection integrates weed control into larger holistic programs. If the management goal is recovery or protection of biological assets, the weed program needs to encompass more than just weed control. This paper uses two WoNS, bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera) and bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides), to illustrate this need for increased restoration of invaded native communities. These two weeds are used as examples because there is a large amount of information about their impacts, the attributes of the ecosystems they have invaded and the biodiversity response to their control. Weed control is a vital part of protecting and restoring native biodiversity and normal ecosystem processes. However, unless weed invasion is at an early stage, weed control alone may not be sufficient to restore an invaded ecosystem. Further restoration may be needed to ameliorate the long term residual impacts of weed invasion.