Boneseed in Australia: research, management and coordinated action.
Boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (L.) T.Norl., is an aggressive South African shrub that has invaded large areas of south-eastern Australia, where it has spread rapidly and caused serious impacts on natural ecosystems. In 2000, boneseed was listed as a Weed of National Significance (WoNS) in Australia and a nationally coordinated program began in 2005. Over the last 5 years, coordinated actions have led to increased awareness and spread prevention aimed at reducing the impact of this widespread weed in Australia. Westward spread is being prevented by eradication and containment programs, while outlier populations in the eastern states and Tasmania are prioritised for control to prevent spread and contain core infestations. Seed persistence studies and research to determine the impacts of boneseed invasions on biodiversity are underway to inform management. Education resources developed by the program are being used to increase weed awareness among young people. These activities lead to more informed, targeted management and support thousands of volunteers and land managers striving to control boneseed across Australia. This paper examines how these and other strategic actions are contributing to the success of the Australian WoNS boneseed program.