Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of stem of Cissus quadrangularis L.
The stems of Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae) are reported to have great medicinal value. The present investigation was therefore undertaken to determine the requisite pharmacognostic standards for evaluating the plant material. The macroscopic features of the Cissus quadrangularis L. stem were observed under magnifying lens. Microscopic characters and powder analysis were determined under microscope. The physiochemical properties such as loss on drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash value, water soluble ash value, pH, and extractive values of stem were carried out. The microscopic study showed abundant large cells of mucilage, clusters and bundles of acicular crystals of calcium oxalate scattered throughout the section. The powder microscopy showed the presence of annular, reticulated and boarded pitted thickening xylem vessels, cluster, rosette and acicular crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of many important classes of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and triterpenes. The determination of these characteristics will aid future investigators in their pharmacological analyses of this species.