Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

A male-produced aggregation pheromone of Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a major vector of pine wood nematode.

Abstract

The beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is an efficient vector of pine wood nematode, the causal pathogen of pine wilt disease, that has resulted in devastating losses of pines in much of Asia. We assessed the response of adult M. alternatus to 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol, the male-produced pheromone of the congeneric M. galloprovincialis Dejean, in field experiments in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. Both sexes of M. alternatus were attracted to lures consisting of 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol combined with the host plant volatiles α-pinene and ethanol. A follow-up experiment showed that 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol was synergized by both ethanol and α-pinene. Coupled gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry analyses of volatiles sampled from field-collected beetles of both sexes revealed that 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol was a sex-specific pheromone component produced only by males. The combination of 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol with ethanol and/or α-pinene will provide a valuable and badly needed tool for quarantine detection, monitoring, and management of M. alternatus.