Temperature-dependent demography of Chilades pandava peripatria (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).
Chilades pandava peripatria Hsu and its host plant Cycas taitungensis Shen, Hill, Tsou & Chen are both endemic species to Taiwan. Ch. pandava peripatria has a specific association with buds and soft leaves of cycad plants. The introduced species, Cy. revoluta, have prolonged budding periods and extensive auxiliary buds that extensively contribute to the outbreak of Ch. pandava peripatria. An in-depth knowledge of the development, survival, and fecundity of Ch. pandava peripatria under different environmental conditions is necessary to understand the population growth of Ch. pandava peripatria. The demography of Ch. pandava peripatria was studied based on the age-stage, two-sex life table at 20, 23, 25, 28, and 31°C, 70% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h under laboratory conditions. Ch. pandava peripatria completed its development under tested temperatures but did not produce offsprings at 23°C. Because of the high egg mortality at 20°C, the data at this given temperature were excluded from this study. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) under these tested temperatures was 0.1846, 0.2919, and 0.1412 d-1, respectively. The net reproductive rate (R0) was 165.47, 262.32, and 56.68 offsprings per individual and the mean generation time (T) was 27.72, 19.10, and 28.67 d, respectively. Our results indicated that Ch. pandava peripatria is highly adaptable to environments where temperature ranges from 25 to 31°C.