Occurrence of viruses in wheat in the Great Plains region, 2008.
Field surveys in 2008 determined the prevalence and diversity of viruses present in the Great Plains wheat crops. Symptomatic plants (n=754) in nine states were tested for Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV, formerly known as High Plains virus), Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV), and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV), using indirect ELISA. Virus prevalence varied greatly, with average frequency of detection highest for WSMV (47%), followed by WMoV (19%), TriMV (17%), BYDV-PAV (7%), and lowest for CYDV-RPV (2%). Most positive plant samples (37%) had one virus present, with decreasing frequencies for co-infection by two (19%), three (5%), or four viruses (1%). TriMV was detected for the first time in Colorado, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. WMoV was identified for the first time in Montana and Wyoming. Chlorotic streaks were more frequently associated with WSMV, WMoV, and TriMV (R=0.166 to 0.342; P<0.05), and stunting was more frequently associated with WMoV (R=0.142; P=0.004) or TriMV (R=0.107; P=0.033) than WSMV. Symptom severity did not increase with co-infection as compared to single virus infections, with the exception of plants co-infected with mite transmitted viruses in Texas.