Current status of grapevine leafminers in north-eastern Italy.
Up to 2007, two species of grapevine leafminers were known in Italy as well as in Europe: Phyllocnistis vitegenella Clemens and Holocacista rivillei (Stainton). They are usually considered minor pests and do not require specific control measures. However, an increasing importance of these pests has been observed in north-eastern Italy in recent growing seasons. An additional leafminer species belonging to the genus Antispila was also detected in 2007 in north-eastern Italy. The origin of this species, which is new for Europe, is still unknown. The phenology, pest status, and natural control of these leafminer species have been investigated in a number of vineyards located in the Veneto and Trentino regions. The implications of leafminer occurrence for integrated pest management (IPM) on grapevines are discussed.