Larval phenologies and parasitoids of two seed-feeding weevils associated with hoary cress and shepherd's purse (Brassicaceae) in Europe.
In Europe, Ceutorhynchus turbatus Schultze and Ceutorhynchus typhae (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feed on seeds from hoary cress and shepherd's purse (Cardaria draba (L.) Desv. and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.); both plants are invasive in North America. In North America, C. turbatus is a candidate for biological control of hoary cress, C. typhae is adventive, and both are sympatric with cabbage seedpod weevil (Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham)), an invasive alien pest of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L., Brassicaceae). We investigated host associations among C. turbatus, C. typhae, and their parasitoids in Europe. Of particular interest was host specificity of Trichomalus perfectus (Walker) and Mesopolobus morys (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), candidates for biological control of C. obstrictus in North America. We found no evidence that T. perfectus attacks C. turbatus or C. typhae; however, M. morys was the most common parasitoid associated with C. turbatus.