Interceptions and incursions of exotic Sirex species and other siricids (Hymenoptera: Siricidae).
The family Siricidae has more than 100 species in about 11 genera. Nearly all species are native to the Northern Hemisphere although there is an endemic genus (Afrotremex) in southern Africa. Collectively they are known as woodwasps or horntails. All siricids are wood borers and several species are forestry pests to varying degrees. New Zealand has a single species of siricid woodwasp, Sirex noctilio F., thought to have been accidentally introduced around 1900. Two recent and noteworthy siricid incursions are presented as case studies, with an emphasis on the science used in decision support. The first case study describes the advantages of using morphological and molecular diagnostic approaches in combination. This case resulted in the first published host record association between S. noctilio and Amylostereum areolatum (Chaillet ex Fr.) Boidin in Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Manetti. The second case study reports the application of published life cycle developmental data to assess establishment risk, and profiles the entry of Sirex juvencus (L.) into New Zealand within timber stamped with the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 15 mark, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Biosecurity New Zealand's actions to mitigate this high-risk pathway. Historical records of siricid interceptions at New Zealand's border are examined and discussed, in relation to patterns of interception records over time and the key species intercepted.