Comparison of in vitro heat and cold tolerances of the new invasive species Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) with three known tephritids.
Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) is spreading throughout central Africa attacking a variety of fruit; quarantines are placed on fruit from this region that are considered hosts. The only phytosanitary treatment that is commercially available is an ionizing irradiation treatment for all Tephritidae at 150 Gy. The development of other treatments, such as heat, cold, or fumigation, usually requires testing tens of thousands of insects at a dose that provides efficacy and may take several years. It may be possible to shorten the time required to develop treatments by comparing tolerance of a new quarantine pest to tolerances of pests with similar behaviors and modes of infestation for which treatment schedules are available. Cold and heat tolerance of B. invadens was compared with tolerance of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in vitro. Third-instar B. invadens was no more cold tolerant than the other species when treated in diet at 0.94±0.65°C and no more heat tolerant than C. capitata when immersed in vials in water at 44.7±0.1°C. The data at 0.94±0.65°C was used to include B. invadens in a USDA cold treatment schedule for citrus fruit from Africa so that trade would not be interrupted while protecting U.S. agriculture from this invasive pest.