First report of the cyst nematode (Heterodera filipjevi) on wheat in Henan Province, China.
During a survey for cereal cyst nematodes from May to June of 2009, cyst nematodes were detected in 4 wheat-growing areas (Liying, Xuchang, Weihui and Yanjing) of Henan province, China. The main wheat cultivar affected was Wenmai No.4. Almost 5.3 million ha of winter wheat are grown in Henan province and 73% of the fields surveyed were found to be infested with Heterodera avenae. The affected wheat fields had stunted patches. Stunted seedlings had chlorotic or necrotic lower leaves, few or no tillers and bushy, light brown roots leading to typical witches'-broom symptoms resulting from increased rootlet emergence at the nematode invasion sites. Individual roots had a knotted appearance. The cyst nematodes obtained from soil samples and plant samples at these 4 locations differed from those of H. avenae and had uniform morphological and molecular characteristics. These characteristics indicated that the 4 populations were H. filipjevi, a member of the 'H. avenae Group' of cereal cyst nematodes. This is thought to be the first report of H. filipjevi in China.