Occurrence and geographical distribution of the 'Torrado' disease in Spain.
In surveys to determine the occurrence and distribution of the 'torrado' disease (Tomato torrado virus, ToTV) in the main Spanish tomato growing areas from 2001 to 2008, a total of 584 samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected from 92 greenhouses. The tests showed that 451 plants from 85 greenhouses of different areas were infected with ToTV. The majority of the positive samples showed typical symptoms of the disease. However, plants showing different symptoms of necrosis and even asymptomatic plants were infected with the virus. Co-infection of ToTV with Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) occurred in a large number of samples (60.5%), and several samples were infected with other tomato-infecting viruses, including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Parietaria mottle virus (PMoV), Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Tomato apex necrosis virus (ToANV) was not detected in any of those samples with similar symptoms to those described for that virus. Additional tests revealed that (i) ToTV whitefly transmission is highly efficient and variety-dependent in tomato plants, (ii) Datura stramonium is another solanaceous species susceptible to this virus and (iii) the tissue-printing hybridization is a reliable technique which could facilitate the routine diagnosis and large-scale analysis of ToTV.