Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Season-long mating disruption of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, with an emulsified wax formulation of pheromone.

Abstract

The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a major worldwide pest of citrus. Larval feeding by this insect facilitates proliferation of citrus bacterial canker, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. Herein, we describe a season-long disruption trial of P. citrella with a newly developed, emulsified wax dispenser of pheromone (SPLAT-CLMTM). A formulation containing a 3:1 blend of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal:(Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal at a 0.2% loading rate of active ingredient by weight and deployed twice per season (24 weeks total) at 490 g of formulation/ha caused season-long disruption of male moth catch in pheromone traps as well as reduced leaf infestation. Analysis of pheromone release from dispensers by gas chromatography revealed that effective disruption of P. citrella occurred at a deployment rate of 126 µg of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal/ha/h. Direct observation of moth behaviour in the field suggested that disruption by this formulation occurred by a non-competitive mechanism. A formulation of the 3:1 attractive blend at a 0.02% pheromone loading rate caused only 2-6 weeks of disruption per deployment and did not reduce leaf infestation during mid and end of the season evaluations. A formulation containing 0.2% of (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal alone and deployed at 490 g/ha caused 6-7 weeks of moth disruption to pheromone traps and did not prevent leaf infestation, while an identical formulation loaded with 0.02% (w/w) of (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal alone had no effect on P. citrella orientation to pheromone traps. The SPLAT formulation evaluated herein appears to be an excellent release device for (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal given that approximately 100 days of steady release occurred following an initial brief (ca. 7 days) burst of higher release. The advantages of SPLAT as a formulation for P. citrella disruption include low cost of manufacturing, biodegradable and weather resistant characteristics, and flowability allowing machine application. Mating disruption should be an effective alternative to insecticides for management of P. citrella and may reduce the incidence of citrus canker.