Reconstitution of authentic nanovirus from multiple cloned DNAs.
We describe a new plant single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus, a nanovirus isolate originating from the faba bean in Ethiopia. We applied rolling circle amplification (RCA) to extensively copy the individual circular DNAs of the nanovirus genome. By sequence analyses of more than 208 individually cloned genome components, we obtained a representative sample of eight polymorphic swarms of circular DNAs, each about 1 kb in size. From these heterogeneous DNA populations after RCA, we inferred consensus sequences of the eight DNA components of the virus genome. Based on the distinctive molecular and biological properties of the virus, we propose to consider it a new species of the genus Nanovirus and to name it faba bean necrotic stunt virus (FBNSV). Selecting a representative clone of each of the eight DNAs for transfer by T-DNA plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens into Vicia faba plants, we elicited the development of the typical FBNSV disease symptoms. Moreover, we showed that the virus thus produced was readily transmitted by two different aphid vector species, Aphis craccivora and Acyrthosiphon pisum. This represents the first reconstitution of a fully infectious and sustainably insect-transmissible nanovirus from its cloned DNAs and provides compelling evidence that the genome of a legume-infecting nanovirus is typically comprised of eight distinct DNA components.