Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Wetland biodiversity in Nepal - status and strategy for sustainable management of resources.

Abstract

Wetlands support a wide variety of habitats for flora and fauna. This paper presents the wetland biodiversity in Nepal. Wetland plants in Nepal are comprised of floating submerged and emergency hydrophytes. A high diversity of wetland animal species includes wild water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), pygmy hog (Sus salvanius), tiger (Panthera tigris), Gangetic river dolphin (Platanista gangetica), snow trout (Schizothorax sp.), water snake (Natrix plutyceps), gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), marsh mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris), rohu (Labeo rohita) and frogs (Rana sp.). This remarkable diversity has made Nepal a veritable gene bank for a number of crops, trees, medicinal and aromatic plants and animals. The values and functions of wetlands, conservation efforts, and sustainable management of wetlands are discussed. The stress on wetland biodiversity are enumerated and discussed which include the following: fragmentation and modification of habitats; unsustainable use of water resources; unsustainable harvesting of wetlands; siltation; over-exploitation; unplanned development and haphazard implementation of development activities; unregulated garbage and sewage disposal; eutrophication; introduction of exotic fish farming; and use of persistent organic pesticides.