Natural and induced parasitism of Anagyrus kamali against pink hibiscus mealybug on teak shoots in Bahia de Banderas, Nayarit.
The parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi is used in biological control programs against Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (PHM) Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). However, detailed studies on its impact in field conditions are needed. This study evaluated natural and induced parasitism of A. kamali against PHM on teak shoots covered with organza sleeves under field conditions in Bahía de Banderas, Nayarit, México. The treatments were (1) exclusion of natural enemies, (2) natural parasitism, and (3) induced parasitism (A. kamali). The effect of the treatments was determined by recording the numbers of PHM nymphs, adult females and ovisacs as well as the number of parasitoid mummies 15 and 30 d after treatments were established. The parasitoid A. kamali regulated the population growth of PHM on the sprouts covered with organza sleeves under field conditions. The average reduction of the pest was 96.5% in 30 d. Natural parasitism was negligible in regulating the pest and did not prevent its increase; this was attributed to interference of ants and to the negative impact of hyperparasitoids.