Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of pineapple in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.
Pineapple is an important crop in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and there is a need for increased pest management information on the crop in this state. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), especially mealybugs, are major pests of pineapple plants throughout the world, but very little is known of scale insects that occur in Espírito Santo. This study was done to determine what species of scale insects occur on pineapple and other plants in Espírito Santo in order to obtain a better understanding of the potential pests of pineapple (and other crops) in this State. Insects were collected on pineapples and other plants from various locations throughout the State from 2003 to 2006. Coccoidea were identified from about 200 plant samples representing at least 30 species of 20 plant families (mainly of tropical fruits and ornamentals). 11 scale insect species that are potential pests of pineapple were recorded for the first time in the State: Aspidiotus nerii, Diaspis boisduvalii, Diaspis bromeliae, Melanaspis smilacis, Pinnaspis strachani, Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis, Unaspis citri, Coccus viridis, Phenacoccus madeirensis, Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi, and Pseudococcus longispinus. Other scale insects found that are known as potential pests of pineapple were the following: Dysmicoccus brevipes, Dysmicoccus grassii, Ferrisia virgata, Planococcus citri, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus viburni, and Praelongorthezia praelonga. Although at least 18 scale insect species known as potential pineapple pests are present in Espírito Santo State, only Diaspis boisduvalii, Diaspis bromeliae, Dysmicoccus brevipes, and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi were collected from pineapple pants and currently only Dysmicoccus brevipes is known as a major pest of pineapple crops in the State. Information obtained in this study provides a basis for development of integrated pest management methods for pineapple crops in Espírito Santo State.