Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Pests and natural enemies determined in pomegranate orchards in Turkey.

Abstract

This article consists of the results of the studies that were conducted, from the past until today, to determine the pests and natural enemies in pomegranate orchards of Turkey. So far, 100 pests belonging to 12 orders (Insecta=8, Gastropoda, Arachnida, Aves and Mammalia) and 38 families and 64 natural enemies belonging to 7 orders (Insecta=7) and 14 families were found in pomegranate orchards in Turkey. Depending on the regions, two pests, among them Ectomyelois ceratonia Zell. (Lep.: Pyralidae) and Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Dip.: Tephritidae), are found to be the main pests and Aphis punicae Passerini (Hom.: Aphididae), Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday), Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell (Hom.: Aleyrodidae), Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hom.: Pseudococcidae), Zeuzera pyrina (L.) (Lep.: Cossidae), Carpophilus bipustulatus Heer (Col.: Nitidulidae) and Schistocerus bimaculatus Ol. (Col.: Bostrychidae) are found to be other important pest problems. For natural enemies, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neu. Chrysopidae), Coccinella septempunctata (L.), Exochomus quadripustulatus L., Serangium montazerii Fürsch, Scymnus apetzi Mulsant (Col.: Coccinellidae), Nabis punctatus Costa (Hem.: Nabidae), Orius niger Wollf. (Hem.: Anthocoridae), Deraeocoris serenus Doug.&Scott. (Hem.: Miridae), Encarsia inaron Walker (Hym.: Aphelinidae), Episyrphus baltaetus De Geer (Dip.: Syrphidae) and Forficula auricularia L. (Derm.: Forficulidae) are found to be common species in pomegranate orchards in Turkey.