Invasive Species Compendium

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Abstract

Fauna of plant-parasitic nematodes in natural and cultivated areas of the Amazon forest, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

Abstract

The aim of this work was to study the diversity of the fauna of plant-parasitic nematodes in preserved areas of the Amazon forest, Mato Grosso state (MT), and to assess the effect of agricultural land use on plant-parasitic nematode communities. Soil and root samples were collected in each location in the late spring during the rainy season of 2005, in two areas of primary vegetation in Nova Maringá (Northwest) and Guarantã do Norte (North) and two adjacent areas planted with teak trees (Tectona grandis) and pasture (Brachiaria brizantha). Fourteen taxa of plant-parasitic nematodes were identified at species level: Discocriconemella degrissei, D. limitanea, Dolichodorus minor, Helicotylenchus erythrinae, H. pseudorobustus, Meloidogyne exigua, M. javanica, Mesocriconema ornata, Paratrichodorus minor, Pratylenchus loosi, P. zeae, Rotylenchus caudaphasmidius, Xiphinema ensiculiferum and X. luci (for the first report of this in Brazil) and five at genus level (Atalodera sp., Hemicriconemoides sp., Meloidogyne sp., Paratylenchus sp., and Trophotylenchulus sp). These taxa, mainly those from primary vegetation, belong to families with different parasitic behavior, probably due to great plant diversity in the Amazon forest. Comparison between the two preserved areas revealed low index of similarity, as a consequence of the endemic flora in the Amazon forest, and no similarity was observed between preserved native vegetation and adjacent cultivated areas, demonstrating the high influence of agricultural activity on the plant-parasitic nematode communities. There is evidence of recent introduction of plant-parasitic nematodes in these cultivated areas; therefore measures should be taken to prevent the loss of economic sustainability in Amazonian soils.